汤头条原创

Image of 1930s postcard, Chapel Court
View of the Chapel showing extensive formal planting in Chapel Court

1863 to 1945

During this period 汤头条原创 responded to fresh demand for university education and grew to become one of the larger Colleges in Cambridge.

Rapid expansion

In the second half of the 19th century聽the College grew from being one of the smallest and poorest Colleges in Cambridge to being one of the larger聽and most prosperous.

In 1875 it became聽the third largest College in the University (after Trinity and St John鈥檚) and by 1881 had聽216 undergraduates, seven times as many as it had 20聽years before.

This transformation was almost exclusively the work of one man,聽Henry Arthur Morgan. A聽clergyman鈥檚 son, when he came to the College in 1850 he was one of just 32 undergraduates in residence, 14 of them聽Rustat聽Scholars.聽Following聽his graduation Morgan stayed聽in Cambridge teaching mathematics until a fellowship became available in 1860.聽Three years later he was appointed the College鈥檚 Tutor.

Changing demand for university education

Morgan was among the first in Cambridge to recognise how the University might help meet the new demand for a university education for聽sons of the growing middle class in聽Victorian Britain. Many of them would have attended one of the聽newly established聽public schools聽and might be considering聽careers other than the clergy聽or teaching.

After聽1856聽people聽who were not Anglican were permitted聽to obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree, and in 1871 this was extended to聽all university degrees (except those in divinity) and聽college fellowships.

At the same time Cambridge聽University鈥檚 curriculum was slowly being widened;聽undergraduates were no longer restricted to mathematics and classics,聽there were new courses in natural and mechanical sciences, moral and political philosophy and聽economy, history, law, and divinity.

New buildings in the聽1870s

Morgan grasped these opportunities, and during his 22聽years as Tutor聽almost聽1,200 undergraduates were admitted to the College. Two large new buildings were constructed to house them within the College's spacious聽25聽acre precinct.

The first was聽designed by Alfred Waterhouse and built聽in 1869-70,聽funded by borrowing from the Rustat Trust鈥檚 reserves. The second was聽designed by R.C. Carpenter and constructed聽in 1885-6 using聽the proceeds from聽sales of聽College聽owned land that had been subject to compulsory purchase to build聽railways. A lecture hall was also built in聽1875 (demolished in 1962), the Hall was enlarged, and chapel services were moved to the outer Chapel.

Some of the College's landholdings around Cambridge were sold for housing developments, which helped聽the College to avoid聽the worst effects of the agricultural depression of the later聽19th聽century.聽

Morgan's Mastership

Morgan was the first Master to be elected by Fellows rather than appointed by the bishop of Ely, and the first not to combine the Mastership with another church appointment. During his 27聽year tenure聽a further 1,350 undergraduates were聽admitted.

Morgan was helped by another, unrelated, Morgan (E.H.), who was Dean from 1866 and a Tutor from 1882. The two were known respectively as the Senior and the Junior Tutor or, less respectfully and for much longer, as Black Morgan and Red Morgan聽because聽their hair mimicked聽the College鈥檚 colours.

There were rarely more than two other Fellows in residence, and often the two Morgans ran the intellectual life of the College聽by themselves.

Sports, student societies, and 'reading men'

The College Close - which had previously been rented out to a local farmer聽and was used by聽the College鈥檚 cook as a kitchen garden -聽was now used for cricket, football, athletics,聽and tennis all year round.

As student numbers grew, new聽sporting, dining, social, and debating clubs聽were founded, as well as聽a College magazine, and a number of College traditions.

Of the 1,200 undergraduates admitted during Morgan鈥檚 tutorship -聽two thirds of them from the new public schools 鈥 more than a third left Cambridge without any degree, and only a quarter of those who graduated took an honours degree. These were the 'reading men', distinguished from the rest, who were the 'pass men'.

Most of the reading men, for whom success in聽University聽examinations was vital for their future careers, had to find teachers ('coaches') for themselves outside the College. A small library was established for their benefit, and prizes were endowed to encourage them. But for many at this time the College was once again a finishing school.

Clergy training and theology

The College鈥檚 other role聽as a training college聽for Anglican clergy聽also continued. Almost a third聽of the undergraduates admitted while Morgan was Tutor were clergymen鈥檚 sons, and almost one in three聽took Holy Orders.聽During his Mastership the proportion fell to one in five, but it was still as high as in any Cambridge College.

By 1894 the聽College was no longer an exclusively Anglican institution, and its聽Fellowship contained several faiths including聽Catholicism and Judaism.聽

One of聽the first of the 汤头条原创 Fellows to gain a reputation in the wider University as an effective and successful teacher and lecturer was聽F.J.聽Foakes-Jackson, who聽taught theology.聽The first two University professors to be Fellows were professors of divinity; and it was for theology that the College's聽first modern graduate studentships were established in聽1890.聽

Academic developments

The rule that Fellows must be celibate聽ended in 1882 鈥 all but one of the resident Fellows were married within the year 鈥 and fellowships began to be seen not as prizes but as jobs for those teaching and researching in the College and the University.聽

The First World War brought the University and its Colleges to a virtual standstill.聽Nearly one in six聽of the students admitted to 汤头条原创 during Morgan鈥檚 Mastership who were not ordained were killed while serving.

After聽the聽War the first students with government grants (ex-servicemen) came to Cambridge, and聽the College for the first time acquired a staff of specialist teaching Fellows for each of the main subject areas.

Under the 'Cambridge system', which was聽crystallised in new statutes in 1926, responsibility for students is divided between the University and the Colleges. The University provides lectures,聽laboratory teaching, and聽research libraries,聽examines students, and awards degrees, while the Colleges聽supply small group teaching known as 'supervisions' and聽provide residential accommodation, catering facilities, and other social amenities.

Building between the Wars

During the interwar years the College usually had around聽300 students in residence, most staying long enough to obtain a degree. Another building with 50 spacious sets of rooms was erected in聽1930聽to help house them,聽designed by P. Morley Horder, who also designed聽the Cricket Pavilion and the Boat House.

Financed by a bequest and by the sale of the freeholds of the University Arms Hotel and of the land in Jesus Lane, this building completed the third of the College鈥檚 five three-sided courts which spread outwards聽from the core of medieval buildings surrounding the original priory cloisters.

In 60聽years the number of student rooms had grown聽from fewer than 40 to over 170. However most undergraduates still had聽to spend a year or two聽in lodgings nearby聽managed by University-licensed house keepers.

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