Image of 汤头条原创 Chapel by Ackermann 1815
汤头条原创 Chapel by Ackermann 1815

1671 to 1863

During the 18th and early 19th centuries 汤头条原创 was home to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas Robert Malthus, and other notable figures.聽

Substantial numbers of undergraduate pensioners came to the College聽in the years following the Restoration. But after the 1670s they began to fall away, and with them Cambridge鈥檚 role as a 'finishing school'.聽

The聽University and its Colleges lost much of their attraction for men who weren't set聽on a career in the church, which now sought to exclude those with Calvinist 鈥 Presbyterian or Independent 鈥 beliefs.

Ultimately two聽exclusive groups developed: Churchmen and Dissenters. The universities and their Colleges became the property of the Churchmen, leaving the Dissenters to聽offer聽a university聽level education in their own academies.

Rustat's benefaction

In 1671聽Tobias Rustat聽made a聽benefaction to the College聽which reinforced聽its character as a training institution for Anglican clergy for the next 200 years. Many 汤头条原创 graduates聽went on to serve local parishes;聽in nine of these it was the College that appointed the vicar.

Tobias Rustat was Yeoman of the Robes to Charles II, and his loyalty as a personal attendant of the King throughout the long years of his exile was rewarded with money and land.聽He further increased his fortune through profitable investments in slave trading companies.

Rustat聽established a permanent trust fund for scholarships for eight sons of deceased聽Church of England clergymen,聽enabling聽them to study in the College until they had obtained their MA degree聽and could be ordained themselves. In addition to this, Rustat also established a fund for widows of Church of England clergymen.聽

By 1769 it was possible to increase the number of his scholarships from eight to eleven and double their value. Fifty years later there were 14 scholarships and 17聽by聽the 1860s.

Rustat鈥檚 example was followed by other benefactors who established similar scholarships for the sons of living clergymen. During the next 350 years聽these endowments brought close to聽800 sons of the clergy to the College. Well over half of them were ordained聽in their turn. Dozens became Fellows, and one of them,聽Lynford聽Caryl, became聽Master.

Rustat Scholars

The Rustat Scholars made up聽a distinctive society within the College聽with its own officers, gowns, and annual party or feast at which formal speeches聽were delivered and toasts聽were drunk.

The most famous Rustat Scholar was Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Coleridge聽named his eldest son after another Rustat Scholar, David Hartley, who was a聽philosopher and physician as well as聽author of the influential Observations on Man.

Laurence Sterne,聽author of Tristram Shandy, was sent to the College聽by his clergyman cousin聽and held another of the scholarships: one established by his great聽grandfather, Richard Sterne, Master of the College (1634-44, 1660) and Archbishop of York.

Changes to College buildings聽

During the 17th century four Masters of Jesus had been promoted to lead other,聽more prestigious聽Colleges. However,聽the Master聽appointed in 1701,聽Charles Ashton, remained in office until his death 51 years later. A High Tory, his hopes of preferment were shattered when Queen Anne died and the Whigs returned to power and stayed there.聽

With rarely more than 30 students and only a handful of Fellows in residence at any one time, there was little call (and little money) for new buildings during this period.聽Despite this聽the College鈥檚 unfashionable, irregular, medieval appearance was addressed聽by various 'improvements'.

The garrets to the west of the gate tower were replaced by a second floor of聽rooms, wrought iron gates supported by elegant piers were installed at the entrance from the street, and the Hall was panelled聽in聽1703, as were the Fellows鈥 Combination Room in聽1764聽and the inner Chapel in聽1790.

The cloisters were rebuilt and opened out to give more light and air, and a degree of symmetry was given to the entrance court by moving the ornate early 16th聽century doorway to the cloisters to a central position in聽1765. The mullioned windows facing Jesus Lane were replaced by fashionable sashed ones. The Tudor brick chimneys that topped the gate聽tower were taken down and the Hall鈥檚 windows were enlarged, in 1791 and聽1801 respectively.

All聽these changes except the Chapel panelling and the sash聽windows remain, contributing greatly to the College鈥檚 present聽day appearance聽and influencing the architectural character of almost all the buildings that were erected here in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Dissent and revolution

Between 1785 and 1820聽an ambitious Master (Richard Beadon) and then a group of unusually able and active Fellows drew attention - and a number of new students -聽to the College.

Several Fellows moved from Anglican to Unitarian beliefs, as did the young聽Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They joined the campaign to end the exclusion of Protestant Dissenters from University聽degrees and College fellowships, although it would聽be 60聽years before this campaign succeeded.

Some Fellows and students were sympathetic towards聽the French Revolution and voiced their opposition to the war against France.

The most notable and influential of the Fellows in聽these years was the pioneering economist 罢丑辞尘补蝉听搁辞产别谤迟听惭补濒迟丑耻蝉, whose Essay on the Principle of Population聽generated debates that still continue. The most prolific writer among them was Edward Daniel聽Clarke,聽a former Rustat Scholar, an adventurous and enterprising traveller, and a collector.

But this lively expansion of the聽College was shortlived, and 12 additional rooms (in Pump Court) were built聽in 1822,聽just at the moment when the number of pensioner students (those who paid ordinary fees) began to decline again.聽

As聽student numbers fell聽the College鈥檚 financial fortunes began to rise, largely as a result of the growth of the town and the enclosure聽of its common fields, which had extended聽almost to the walls and gardens of the Colleges.

During聽the mastership of William French from聽1820 to 1849 the College exploited the opportunities for new housing developments. Houses were built聽in Jesus Lane, Malcolm Street, New Square, and Park Terrace, and still make a distinctive contribution to Cambridge鈥檚 townscape. They are now used for housing students and Fellows.

Chapel restorations

Since the early 1700s Chapel services had been simple and austere;聽the organ was no longer used聽and was finally聽sold.聽In accordance with the ideals of the Oxford Tractarians and the ecclesiological principles of the Cambridge Camden Society, in the 1840s the building was stripped of the partitions, false ceilings, and classical dress that it had received in 1788-90.

After employing the early聽Gothic revivalist architect, Anthony Salvin, the College was persuaded by John Sutton聽to replace him with聽the brilliant A.W.N. Pugin, fresh from his triumph at the new Houses of Parliament.

Pugin recreated the early English features聽of the chancel of the original priory聽church, notably the beautiful eastern lancet windows and roof. He聽furnished it with choir聽stalls which were聽modelled on those聽of the 16th聽century. He also聽added a screen, an organ case, and a lectern.聽Sutton paid for much of the work, and established a choir聽school so that the Chapel services might be sung in a manner worthy of the restored building.

The restoration of the entire Chapel was to take almost 30 years to complete,聽with the aid of the architect G.F. Bodley, and the artists William Morris, Edward Burne-Jones, and Ford Madox Brown. The result was as fine a collection of Victorian church furnishings, stained glass, and interior decoration as聽in any church of comparable size.聽

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